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10 Ancient Indian Scientists Who Changed The World: In ancient India, Science and Mathematics were extremely developed during the period Ancient Indians contributed greatly in the field of medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and other branches of science. From the discovery of Zero to solving linear and quadratic equations, atomic theory, surgery, and various other development done in that period.

So in this article, we are going to list 10 Ancient Indian Scientists Who Changed The World with their innovations and knowledge.

1. Aryabhatta

Born in the fifth century, Aryabhatta was a mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, and physicist. He wrote the book Aryabhattiya, in which he summarises number theory, geometry, trigonometry, and Beejganita (algebra).

Aryabhatta also discovered Zero, using which he measured the exact distance between earth and moon. The discovery of zero opened up new possibilities in mathematics and advance science.

Aryavatta’s descriptions of sine (jya), cosine (kojya), versine (utkrama-jya), and inverse sine (otkram jya) influenced the origin of modern trigonometry. He was also the first mathematician to define sine and versine (1 − cos x) tables, in 3.75-degree intervals from 0 degrees to 90 degrees, to a precision of 4 decimal places.

Apart from mathematics Aryabhatta was a great Astronomer also, he stated his theory that ‘earth is round and rotates on its own axis.’ Aryabhatta is one of the greatest Ancient Indian Scientists who changed the world of science and influence many. [Source]

2. Charaka

Considered the father of ancient Indian science of medicine, Charaka was one of the major contributors to Ayurveda. Charaka was the royal doctor in the Kanishka’s court.

Charaka is considered the first-ever physician to preface the idea of digestion, metabolism, and immunity. He elaborated in his book Charaka Samhita, the body functions because it comprises three dosha or principles, namely movement (vata), transformation (pitta), and lubrication & stability (kapha).

Additionally, he emphasized, illness is caused when the balance among the three doshas in a human body is disturbed. To restore the balance he prescribed ayurvedic medicines. [Source]

3. Baudhayan

During 800 BCE, Baudhayan was the first scientist and mathematician ever to discover various concepts in Mathematics, which were later rediscovered by western society. The important mathematical part like the value of pi was first calculated by Baudhayan.

As we all know, pi is very helpful while calculating the area and circumference of a circle. Even the famous Pythagoras theorem is already mentioned in Baudhayan’s Sulva Sutra, which was written several centuries before the age of Pythagoras. [Source]

4. Bhaskaracharya

Born in 1114 AD, Bijapur in Karnataka, Bhaskaracharya was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. Bhaskaracharya was famous for his book named Siddhanta Shiromani. The book is divided into four segments; Lilavati (Arithmetic), Beejaganit (Algebra), Goladhyaya (Sphere), and Grahaganit (mathematics of planets).

Bhaskaracharya introduced the Cyclic Method also known as the Chakrawat Method to solve algebraic equations. During the 1900s, an English man named James Taylor translated Lilavati and made Bhaskaracharya’s great work known to the world.

While scientists like Newton and Leibniz have been attributed to differential and integral calculus, there is strong evidence to suggest that Bhāskaracharya was a pioneer in some of the important principles of differential calculus. [Source]

5. Sushruta

Sushruta was an ancient Indian scientist and a physician known for his book Susruta Samhita. He investigated human anatomy with the help of a dead body. In his book, he mentioned over 1100 diseases including fevers of 26 kinds, jaundice of 8 kinds, and urinary complaints of 20 kinds. More than 760 plants are described and its all parts including roots, bark, juice, resin, flowers, etc as remedies.

In Susruta Samhita there is a description of 101 different instruments used in surgery. He also described some of the serious operations performed like taking the fetus out of the womb, repairing the damaged rectum, removing stone from the bladder, and many more. Shusruta is referred to as the Father of Surgery. [Source]

6. Brahmgupta

Born in 598 CE, Brahmagupta was an ancient scientist, mathematician, and astronomer. He is the author of the book Brahm Sputa Siddantika, where he describes mathematical content, like a good understanding of the role of zero, rules for multiplying both negative and positive numbers, a method for computing square roots, solving linear and quadratic equations, and many more.

Brahmagupta made some other important contributions in astronomy like methods for calculating the position of heavenly bodies over time, the calculation of solar and lunar eclipses, their rising and setting, and conjunctions. By reading his work nobody can deny he was one of the greatest Ancient Indian Scientists Who Changed The World with his knowledge and innovations. [Source]

7. Mahaviracharya

Mahaviracharya was an ancient scientist and mathematician born in the 9th-century in the present-day city of Mysore, Karnataka. He wrote a book named Gaṇitasārasan̄graha in which he describes the details of finding the Lowest Common Multiple (LCM) long before JohnNapier introduced it to the western world.

Mahaviracharya separated astronomy from mathematics and he was one of the greatest Ancient Indian Scientists. [Source]

8. Nagarjuna

Nagarjuna was a metallurgist and alchemist born in the 10th century in the village of Daihak near Gujarat. The main aim of his experiments was to change base elements into gold, just like the alchemists in western society.

But he was not successful in his experiments, even though he resulted in making an element with a gold-like shine. To date, his technology is applied in making fake jewelry. In his book, Rasaratnakara, he has explained the methods for the extraction of metals like gold, silver, tin, and copper.

9. Kanad

Kanada, also known as Maharshi Khand was an ancient scientist who established the Vaisheshika school of Indian philosophy and represents the earliest Indian physics. His birth name was Aulukya. He got the name Kanad because even as a child, he was interested in very small particles called “kana”.

His theory can be a match to any of the modern atomic theories. According to Kanad, all the material in the universe is made up of Kanas (anu/atom) which cannot be seen through any human eye. These kanas cannot be further subdivided and thus, they are indivisible and indestructible. This is of course what the modern atomic theory also suggests. [Source]

10. Varahamihira

Varahamihira was an ancient scientist, astronomer, and polymath who lived in the Gupta period. he made great contributions to the fields of hydrology, geology, and ecology. He was one of the first scientists who claim that termites and plants could be great indicators of the presence of underground water.

Varahamihira gave very important information about termites, that they go very deep on the surface of water level to bring water to keep their houses wet. Another theory, which has attracted the world of science is the earthquake cloud theory given by Varahmihira in his book Brhat Samhita. [Source]

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