India is home to several highest and longest mountain ranges across the world and there are nine major mountain ranges with a peak of 1000 meters.

These mountain ranges are geographically and environmentally very important to India as these are the source of the most famous and biggest rivers and waterfalls across the country.

1. The Himalayas Range

The Himalayas Mountain Range is the highest and also the youngest mountain range of India. The mountain range spread across five countries India, Bhutan, Nepal, China, and Pakistan. The mountain range hosts around 52.7 million inhabitants.

Mount Everest is the highest peak of the Himalayas range at 29,029 feet that translates to 8,848 meters and it is also the highest peak on the planet. Other famous hills include Karakoram (K2), Kailash, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat, Annapurna, and Manaslu.

The Himalayas is also the source of major rivers like The Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Yarlung, Yangtze, etc. It is also the third-largest deposit of ice after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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2. Karakoram Range

The Karakoram is a mountain range spreading through the borders of China, India, and Pakistan, and some parts of Afghanistan and Tajikistan its highest 15 hills are all present in Pakistan.

The mountain range begins in the Wakhan Corridor, Afghanistan in the west, passes the majority of Gilgit-Baltistan, and extends into Ladakh, and Aksai Chin. The Karakoram is the second-highest mountain range in the world and is a part of complicated ranges like the Pamir hills, the Hindu Kush, and the Himalayan Mountains. 

The mountain range has eighteen peaks over 7,500 meters of height, with four of them exceeding 8,000 m, mount K2 is the second-highest peak in the world at 8,611 meters or 28,251 ft, present here.

The Karakoram is in one of the most geologically active mountain ranges in the world it is the plate boundary of the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian plate.

3. Pir Panjal Range

The Pir Panjal Range is a mountain range in the lower Himalayan region, spreading from east-southeast to west-northwest across the state of Himachal Pradesh, Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, and the Pakistani occupied Kashmir. The mountain range’s normal altitude varies from 1,400 meters or 4,600 ft to 4,100 meters or 13,500 ft.

The Himalayas mountain range shows a gradual rise towards the Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal ranges and it is the largest range of the lower Himalayas.

Deo Tibba with an altitude of 6,001 meters and Indrasan with an altitude of 6,221 meters are two important hills at the eastern edge of the Pir Panjal Range mountain range. The hills can be reached from both the Parvati-Beas Valley of Kulu District, the Upper Belt of Chamba Himachal Pradesh, and the Chandra  Valley in Himachal Pradesh. The Gulmarg hill station of Kashmir lies in this range.

4. The Purvanchal Range

The Purvanchal Range is more of an extension of the Himalayas mountain range and is also known as Eastern Mountain Range. The mountain range covers the northeastern states of India like Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur, and Tripura.

The Purvanchal Mountain Range covers an area of approximately 94,800 square kilometers and hosts over 4 million population in the northeast states of India. Its length is nearly 755 km from north to south and has a width of nearly 615 km from east to west.

Patkai Bum Hills, Naga Hills, Manipur Hills, Lushai Hills, and Jampui Hills are few important hills present in the Purvanchal mountain range.

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5. The Satpura

The Satpura Range is a mountain range in the central part of India. The range begins in eastern Gujarat state passing through the border of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh till the state of Chhattisgarh. The mountain range correlates the Vindhya Mountain Range to the north, and these two east-west ranges separate Indian Subcontinent into the Indo-Gangetic plain of northern India and the Deccan Plateau of the south.

From the Satpura, Amarkantak the Narmada River is originated and runs in the depression between the Satpura and Vindhya mountain ranges, draining in the Arabian Sea Also the Tapti River originates in the eastern-central part of Satpura mountain ranges.

6. Vindhya Range

The Vindhya Range, also known as the Vindhyachal range is a complicated, intermittent chain of mountain ranges and highlands in west-central India. The mountain range has a general altitude of 300 to 650 m.

Geologically, the Vindhyas do not form a particular mountain range. It is composed of horizontally embedded sedimentary rocks of ancient age.

The mountain range runs north of and stumblingly parallel to the Narmada River in Madhya Pradesh. The range stretches up to Gujarat on the western side, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar on the northern side, and Chhattisgarh on the eastern side.

The mountain range has a prominent significance in Indian religious beliefs and history. The mountain range continues to be acknowledged as the traditional boundary between North India and South India. 

7. The Aravalli Range

The Aravalli Range is one of the major mountain ranges in India, located on the northwest side of the country. The mountain range has an approximate length of 670 km and passing through states and UTs like Delhi, Haryana, and Rajasthan, and Gujarat. The highest hill is Guru Shikhar with a height of 1,722 meters equivalent to 5,650 ft.

The Aravalli Range, an eroded remnant of old mountains, and is the oldest range of pleat mountains in India. The actual history of the Aravalli Range dates back to times continent consolidation when Indian plated separated from the Eurasian.

Since ancient times, the mining of copper and other metals in the Aravalli range even dates back to at least 500 BCE, proved based on carbon dating.  In recent research, it suggests that copper was already mined here throughout the Sothi-Siswal period going back to 4000 BCE.

8. The Western Ghats

The Western Ghats, also known as the Sahyadri is a mountain range, covering an area of 160,000 km² (62,000 mi²)  parallel to the western coast of the Indian subcontinent. The mountain range spreads through states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, and Gujarat.

The Western Ghats is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and it is one of the eight special places of biological diversity in the world. The mountain range is sometimes referred to as the Great Escarpment of India.

The mountain range contains a very large symmetry of India’s flora and fauna, many of which are exclusively found in the country, nowhere else in the world. According to a study by UNESCO, the Western Ghats are maybe even older than the Himalayas.

The Western Ghats also have an impact on Indian monsoon and weather patterns. Around a total of 39 areas present in the Western Ghats, including some national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and forests, were designated as world heritage sites back in 2012, making it one of the major mountain ranges in India. [Reference]

9. The Eastern Ghats

The Eastern Ghats are an intermittent range of mountains and hills along India’s eastern coast. The Eastern Ghats spread across states like Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, some parts of Karnataka, and Telangana. The mountain ranges are eroded and cut through by four significant rivers, which are Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri. The origin of Eastern Ghats is at the Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India.

The Eastern Ghats mountain ranges are quite older than the Western Ghats and have a complicated geologic history. the mountain ranges are historically important as they are related to the assembly and breakup of the ancient supercontinent of Rodinia and the Gondwana supercontinent.

Archaeologically the Eastern Ghats are very important and various minerals like charnockites, granite gneiss, chondrites, metamorphic gneisses, and quartzite rock are very abundant. Along with that Limestone, bauxite, and iron ore are found in various Eastern Ghats hills. [Reference]

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