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7 Upcoming Missions of ISRO 2021: As we know ISRO is the primary space agency of India and one of the most successful and cost-effective space agencies across the world. Below is the list of 7 upcoming missions of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

1. Gaganyaan

Gaganyaan is an upcoming crewed mission of ISRO and the mission will include an orbital spacecraft intended to be the developmental spacecraft of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme. The shuttle is being designed to carry 3 people, and there is also a planned upgraded version that will be decked with rendezvous and docking capability.

It will be the maiden crewed mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The autonomous 5.3-ton space capsule will orbit the Earth at an altitude of 400 km for up to seven days with a two or three-person crew inside it. The crewed mission was originally expected to be launched on December 2021,  but the mission has been delayed due to lock-down to no earlier than 2023.

ISRO’s GSLV Mk III will carry the crew module, which is designed by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) and its first un-crewed experimental flight was tested on 18 December 2014. As of now, the design of the crew module has been completed.

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) will provide critical human-centric support systems and technologies like space-grade food, crew healthcare, radiation measurement and protection, parachutes for safety, etc. [Reference]

2. Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3 is one of the upcoming missions of ISRO and the third lunar exploration mission following the Chandrayaan-2’s failure in a soft landing attempt. A last-minute technical error in the soft landing guidance software commenced the failure after successful orbital insertion.

After that incident, another lunar mission for exhibiting soft landing on the moon was proposed and named Chandrayaan-3. The mission will be a repeat of Chandrayaan-2 but only with a lander and rover and will not have an orbiter.  The probe is planned to be launched in the first half of the year 2022.

Chandrayaan-3’s lander will have only 4 throttle-able engines, unlike the Vikram lander which had five 800 Newtons engines with a fifth one being centrally mounted on Chandrayaan-2. Also, the Chandrayaan-3 lander will include a Laser Doppler Velocimeter.

3. Aditya-L1

Aditya-L1 is a solar exploration probe and an upcoming mission of ISRO to study the Sun. The spacecraft has been designed and developed in collaboration between the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and various other Indian research institutes.

The PSLV-C56 rocket will carry the solar probe to outer space and it is planned to be launched in December 2021 or January 2022. It will be India’s first solar mission.

Aditya-L1  was conceptualized back in  January 2008 by ISRO’s Advisory Committee.  According to the space research organization, the Aditya-L1 mission will be inserted in a halo orbit around 1.5 million km from Earth. The payload includes a 1,500 kg satellite that carries various scientific instruments with different objectives.

The mission will observe coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, coronal magnetometry, origin, and monitoring of near-UV solar radiation, coupling of the solar photosphere to chromosphere and corona, etc. [Reference]

4. NISAR

The NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar shortly known as NISAR is an upcoming mission and a joint project between NASA and ISRO. The two space agencies will co-develop and launch a dual frequency synthetic aperture radar with an Earth observation satellite.

The satellite project will be the first of the kind radar imaging satellite to use dual frequencies. With an estimated total cost of US$1.5 billion, it will likely be the world’s most expensive Earth-imaging satellite. The satellite will be used for remote sensing, to observe and understand natural phenomena on Earth. 

NASA-ISRO’s NISAR satellite will use advanced radar imaging to map the elevation of land and ice masses of Earth, 4 to 6 times a month at resolutions of 5 to 10 meters. It is designed to examine the most complex natural processes, including ecosystem disturbances, ice-sheet collapse, and natural uncertainties like earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides. [Reference]

5. Shukrayaan-1

Shukrayaan-1 is an upcoming mission of ISRO to study the atmosphere and surface of Venus with an orbiter designed by the Indian Space Research Organisation. The mission’s initial funding was released in 2017 to complete preliminary studies.

The orbiter would have a scientific payload capability of nearly100 kilograms with 500 W available power. The probe that will orbit elliptically around Venus is expected to have a 500 km distance at periapsis and a 60,000 km distance at apoapsis. The mission will either launch in December 2024 or mid-2026.

The mission includes surface stratigraphy, re-surfacing processes, the study of the atmospheric chemistry, dynamics, and compositional variations, the study of solar irradiance and solar wind interaction with Venus ionosphere, and studying the structure, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere.

6. Mangalyaan-2

Mangalyaan-2 also known as Mars Orbiter Mission 2 is an upcoming mission and most probably the second interplanetary mission planned by ISRO. The martian mission will consist of an orbiter. Indian Space Research Organisation has planned to launch the mission by 2025.

Following the success of the Mars Orbiter Mission-1, ISRO has announced its intent to launch a second mission to Mars at the Engineers Conclave conference on 28 October 2014. The GSLV Mk III will carry the payload, which flew successfully on 5 June 2017. Other details of MOM-2 are unclear at this time.

7. Lunar Polar Exploration Mission

The Lunar Polar Exploration mission is an upcoming robotic lunar mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The space agencies will send a lunar rover and lander to explore the south polar region of the Moon in 2024. According to few sources, JAXA is prone to provide the under-development H3 rocket and the rover, while ISRO would be liable for the lander.

Although the mission concept has not yet been proposed for funding and planning ISRO has signed an Implementation Arrangement in December 2017 with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to explore the polar regions of Moon in search of water. The mission will likely be launched in 2024. [Reference]

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